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First fossil bird with teeth specialized for tough diet

1/7/2013


DEERFIELD, IL (7 January 2013) - Beak shape variation in Darwin’s finches is a classic example of evolutionary adaptation, with beaks that vary widely in proportions and shape, reflecting a diversity of ecologies. While living birds have a beak to manipulate their food, their fossil bird ancestors had teeth. Now a new fossil discovery shows some fossil birds evolved teeth adapted for specialized diets. 


 Image by Stephanie Abramowicz

 

A study of the teeth of a new species of early bird, Sulcavis geeorum, published in the latest issue of the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, suggests this fossil bird had a durophagous diet, meaning the bird’s teeth were capable of eating prey with hard exoskeletons like insects or crabs. The researchers believe the teeth of the new specimen greatly increase the known diversity of tooth shape in early birds, and hints at previously unrecognized ecological diversity.

 

Sulcavis geeorum is an enantiornithine bird from the Early Cretaceous (121-125 million years ago) of Liaoning Province, China. Enantiornithine birds are an early group of birds, and the most numerous birds from the Mesozoic (the time of the dinosaurs). Sulcavis is the first discovery of a bird with ornamented tooth enamel. The dinosaurs – from which birds evolved – are mostly characterized by carnivorous teeth with special features for eating meat. The enantiornithines are unique among birds in showing minimal tooth reduction and a diversity of dental patterns. This new enantiornithine has robust teeth with grooves on the inside surface, which likely strengthened the teeth against harder food items. 


Photograph by Stephanie Abramowicz


 

No previous bird species have preserved ridges, striations, serrated edges, or any other form of dental ornamentation. “While other birds were losing their teeth, enantiornithines were evolving new morphologies and dental specializations. We still don't understand why enantiornithines were so successful in the Cretaceous but then died out – maybe differences in diet played a part.” says Jingmai O’Connor, lead author of the new study.

 
“This study highlights again how uneven the diversity of birds was during the Cretaceous. There are many more enantiornithines than any other group of early birds, each one with its own anatomical specialization.” offers study co-author Luis Chiappe, from Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.

Photograph by Stephanie Abramowicz

 

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ABOUT THE SOCIETY OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY

 

Founded in 1940 by thirty-four paleontologists, the Society now has over 2,000 members representing professionals, students, artists, preparators, and others interested in VP. It is organized exclusively for educational and scientific purposes, with the object of advancing the science of vertebrate paleontology.

 

The Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology

The Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (JVP) is the leading journal of professional vertebrate paleontology and the flagship publication of the Society. It was founded in 1980 by Dr. Jiri Zidek and publishes contributions on all aspects of vertebrate paleontology.

 

For complimentary access to the full article, visit: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/ujvp20/current

The article appears in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33(1), published by Taylor and Francis

Citation:

O’Connor, J.K., Y. Zhang, L. M. Chiappe, Q. Meng, L. Quanguo, and L. Di. 2013. A new enantiornithine from the Yixian formation with the first recognized avian enamel specialization. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33(1):1-12.

Journal Web site: Society of Vertebrate Paleontology: http://vertpaleo.org

 

 

 

AUTHOR CONTACT INFORMATION

Jingmai K. O’Connor

Dinosaur Institute, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County

900 Exposition Boulevard

Los Angeles, CA 90007, U.S.A.

 

Key Laboratory of Evolutionary Systematics of Vertebrates

Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthroplogy

142 Xizhimenwai Dajie

Beijing, China 100044

Email: jingmai.oconnor@gmail.com

 

Yuguang Zhang

Beijing Natural History Museum

126 Tianqiao South Street

Beijing, China 100050

 

Luis M. Chiappe

Dinosaur Institute, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County

900 Exposition Boulevard

Los Angeles, CA 90007, U.S.A.

 

Qingjin Meng, Li Quanguo, Liu Di

Beijing Natural History Museum

126 Tianqiao South Street

Beijing, China 100050

 

 

Suggested Expert Commenters Not Associated with the Study

Lindsey Zanno: lzanno@fieldmuseum.org

North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences

Zhonghe Zhou: zhouzhonghe@ivpp.ac.cn

Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthroplogy

Xing Xu: xu.xing@ivpp@ac.cn

Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthroplogy

 

 

Images

Sulcavis_JVP_cover_11-30-2012_c: Artist’s reconstruction of Sulcavis geeorum in flight. (Image by Stephanie Abramowicz).

SULCAVIS_PR1: Photograph of Sulcavis geeorum skull, a fossil bird from the Early Cretaceous (120 million-years-ago) of Liaoning Province, China with scale bar in millimeters. (Photograph by Stephanie Abramowicz).

SULCAVIS_PR2: Photograph of Sulcavis geeorum, a fossil bird from the Early Cretaceous (120 million-years-ago) of Liaoning Province, China with scale bar in millimeters. (Photograph by Stephanie Abramowicz).

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